Among the points of dissension is the muddled issue of whether the Cham people arose from demic or cultural diffusion from the Austronesians. Therefore, to shed more light on the origin of the Cham people, we first analyzed the whole control-region and partial coding-region sequence variations of mt DNA in 168 Cham individuals collected from southern Vietnam. Heteroplasmic positions are indicated by an “H” after the nucleotide position.
Addressing this issue also helps elucidate the dispersal mode of the Austronesian language. One hundred and thirty-nine Kinh individuals from northern Vietnam were also sampled for comparison as they represent the majority ethnic group in Vietnam. The A–C transversions at nps 16181, 16182, and 16183 were ignored in interpopulation analyses. Reduced median network of HVS-I sequences of haplogroups N21, R22, M17, M21d, M22, M50, M51, M71, and M73 in the region 16085–16365.
While we rely more and more upon our electronic charts, they are only as accurate as their source data.Rocks might not move, but areas are resurveyed all the time – and sandbanks and mudbanks certainly do move, not to mention new buoyage and wrecks which appear all around our coasts – and we need to take advantage of any updates.Louise Cort, curator of ceramics, will discuss how the catalogue serves an international virtual community and will demonstrate its features, including many layers of scholarship.This webinar will be pertinent to anyone interested in Southeast Asia; ceramics; and the use of technology to deliver content, foster dialogue and create virtual communities.Alvin Community College certified medical assistant graduate Natalie Jackson, left, of Alvin receives her certificate from college President Christal M.
Albrecht during the Continuing Education and Workforce Development commencement ceremony May 23.Navionics Navionics are the only company to offer daily chart updates.First identify the type of Navionics charts and the type of memory card you are using: these are likely to be either SD cards, micro-SD cards or Compact Flash (CF) cards.Comparing the Chams with other Southeast Asian populations reveals that the Chams had a closer affinity with the Mon–Khmer populations in MSEA than with the Austronesian populations from Island Southeast Asia (ISEA). The Cham and the Kinh are indicated by the star symbol. The A–C transversions at nps 16181, 16182, and 16183 were ignored in interpopulation analyses. The first principal component (PC) revealed a clear division between ISEA (including Taiwan) and MSEA, corresponding to Austronesians and non-Austronesians, respectively.Further analyses failed to detect the potential homelands of the Chams in ISEA. The other reported populations are indicated by bold circles (table 1). The Cham population, as well as the Kinh, was clustered within the MSEA group, which reflected a geographic clustering pattern rather than linguistic affinity (fig. Haplogroups E1, M7c3c, Q, and Y contributed most to the ISEA pole (Austronesians).Updating paper charts is a simple matter of consulting the updates given in a relevant Notice to Mariners and transferring these via a trusty purple pen to the chart: David Rainsbury wrote about how to update your paper charts in PBO September 2014.